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In an [[UNIX]]-like system, a *system call* (*syscall*) is used to request all
kinds of functionality from the operating system kernel. On GNU/Linux, glibc
translates function calls to system calls by packing arguments appropriately
and using that trap or syscall instruction.
A [[microkernel]]-based system typically won't offer a lot of system calls --
apart from one central one, and that is *send message* (mach_msg) -- but
instead [[RPC]]s will be used instead.
See [[GNU Mach's system calls|microkernel/mach/gnumach/interface/syscall]].
In the [[GNU Hurd|hurd]], a lot of what is traditionlly considered to be a UNIX
system call is implemented (primarily by means of [[RPC]]) inside [[glibc]].
# IRC, freenode, #hurd, 2013-06-15
<braunr> true system calls are always implemented the same way, by the
kernel, using traps or specialized instructions that enable crossing from
user to kernel space
<braunr> glibc simply translates function calls to system calls by packing
arguments appropriately and using that trap or syscall instruction
<braunr> on microkernel based systems however, true system calls are
normally used only for IPC
<braunr> so we also use the term syscall to refer to those RPCs that
provide system services
<braunr> e.G. open() is a call to a file system server (and maybe several
# IRC, freenode, #hurd, 2013-11-02
<Hiryu> how do system calls work in the hurd?
<Hiryu> is it like in linux
<braunr> yes and no
<Hiryu> you set the number in %eax and then in0x80?
<Hiryu> int, even
<braunr> but that's really a detail
<Hiryu> I'm just curious how the flow goes
<braunr> gnumach uses call gates, not interrupt gates
<braunr> but that's just another way to enter the kernel
<braunr> the mechanism itself is almost irrelevant, it matters only for
<braunr> what's truely interesting is that there are very few system calls
<Hiryu> so it goes straight to gnumach, which then figures out where to
relay the call to?
<braunr> the main one being mach_msg
<braunr> one of the arguments to mach_msg is the name of a right
<braunr> (as file descriptors are names for open files)
<Hiryu> hmm okay, so we get to the kernel, go to a kernel server (one
context switch), then get back to the calling process, and that's 2
context switches per system call?
<braunr> a receive right or send right
<braunr> if you send-recv, it's only one
<braunr> but i'm not sure we do that on the hurd
<braunr> again, that's a detail
<Hiryu> what is send-recv?
<braunr> send and receive in the same system call
<braunr> then, we also use system calls to denote the unix-like RPCs of the
<braunr> i mean
<braunr> i also call them system calls
<braunr> for example, read, write, stat, etc..
<Hiryu> I see
<Hiryu> braunr: thanks