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+[[!meta copyright="Copyright © 2010, 2011, 2013 Free Software Foundation,
+[[!meta license="""[[!toggle id="license" text="GFDL 1.2+"]][[!toggleable
+id="license" text="Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
+document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
+any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant
+Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license
+is included in the section entitled [[GNU Free Documentation
+What are the benefits of a native GNU/Hurd system, now that Linux et al. can do
+so much? Think [[hurd/translator]]s: FUSE, [[hurd/subhurd]]s: User-Mode-Linux
+and other virtualization techiques, and so on.
+It is possible to begin [[implementing_Hurd_on_top_of_another_system]], but...
+IRC, #hurd, August / September 2010
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: but Neal and I were not happy with that alone. We were
+ looking for deeper improvements to the system, for, I think, sound
+ reasons. That is what brought us to the L4/Coyotos technologies
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: as you are writing a kernel in user space, you can still
+ do kernel improvements there
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: if you take it very far, you end up with a kernel that
+ runs Linux in user space (just flip the two) for the drivers
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: that is what the L4 people did with the DDE
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: so, with these different cuts, there are different
+ opportunities. on the one end, you can run Linux as normal and get some
+ of the Hurd features such as translators in some programs. At the other
+ end, you can do whatever you want and run some linux code for the drivers
+ or none at all.
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: one of the big questions then becomes: at which point
+ can the advantages offered by the Hurd be realized?
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: and that's not entirely clear to me
+ <marcusb> when I worked on this with Neal, we pushed further and further
+ into need-to-change-everything land
+ <marcusb> while the current efforts on the Hurd seem to be more equivalent
+ to the could-run-it-in-userspace-on-top-of-Linux camp
+ <ArneBab> marcusb: for that I think we need a way to move towards them step
+ by step. Would it be possible to get the advantages of better resource
+ allocation with a Viengoos in userspace, too?
+ <ArneBab> and when that is stable, just switch over?
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: I don't know. I suspect these people will know before
+ us: http://lxc.sourceforge.net/
+ <ArneBab> something like implementing flip points: flip Linux with Hurd to
+ Hund with Linux. Flip Mach with L4 to L4 with Mach.
+ <ArneBab> lxc sounds interesting.
+ <marcusb> note that these efforts address security concerns more than other
+ <marcusb> so they will get isolation long before sharing is even considered
+ <marcusb> but some of the issues are the same
+ <marcusb> once you allow malware to do what it wants, it's a small step to
+ also allow the user to what he wants :)
+ <ArneBab> it kinda looks like hacking it where it doesn’t really fit again…
+ <ArneBab> there I ask myself when the point comes that doing a cleaner
+ design offsets the popularity
+ <ArneBab> they are pushing more and more stuff into userspace
+ <ArneBab> which is a good thing (to me)
+ <ArneBab> it’s hard to clearly describe how, but even though I like having
+ more stuff in userspace, the way it is bolted onto Linux doesn’t feel
+ good for me.
+ <ArneBab> FUSE is cool, but if I use it, I am at a disadvantage compared to
+ a non-fuse user
+ <ArneBab> while in the Hurd, these additional options are on eqal footing.
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: are they pushing more and more into user space? I don't
+ think so. I see more of the reverse, actually
+ <marcusb> or maybe both
+ <ArneBab> FUSE, lxd and scheduling in userspace move to userspace
+ <ArneBab> well, KMS moved to the kernel
+ <ArneBab> to avoid flickering when switching between X and the console?
+ <ArneBab> marcusb: Do you experience FUSE lxc and such being secondclass in
+ Linux, too, or is that just a strange feeling of me?
+ <ArneBab> marcusb: and that splits the users into those who can get stuff
+ into the kernel and those who can only work in userspace – which I don’t
+ really like.
+ <ArneBab> That’s one more advantage of the Hurd: eqal footing for all
+ (except the Mach hackers, but they have a very limited terrain)
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: but UML kernel module is minimal, and Linus didn't have
+ a principled objection to it (but just wanted a more general solution)
+ <marcusb> ArneBab: as a side note, although people keep complaining, the
+ linux kernel seems to be growing steadily, so getting stuff into the
+ kernel doesn't seem too hard. 8-O
+IRC, #hurd, 2010-12-28
+ <tim> but is monolithic so bad?
+ <sartakov> yep
+ <braunr> no it's not
+ <braunr> proof: it works very well for most people
+ <braunr> the real problem is extensibility and interfaces
+ <tim> :/ whats the huge advantage of micro-k
+ <braunr> extensibility
+ <tim> over?
+ <braunr> you can add a whole lot of new services for new purposes with new
+ interfaces without changing the kernel
+ <tim> oright
+ <braunr> it basically boils down to the original Unix idea: everything does
+ one thing well
+ <kilobug> well, I would say extensibility and fault-tolerance are the two
+ key advantages
+ <braunr> taht's a side effect
+ <braunr> there are fault taulerant monolithic kernels
+ <braunr> tolerant*
+ <braunr> and the hurd is for now a non fault-tolerant microkernel based OS
+ <kilobug> braunr: not really; you can't ensure fault tolerance for code
+ running in kernel space, code running in kernel space can do everything,
+ including reboot, crash, ...
+ <braunr> kilobug: right, a monolithick kernel is less folt-tolerant than a
+ well designed/implemented microkernel based os
+It turns out that it is perfectly possible to isolate services running in the
+same address space, as it was done in projects such as Singularity, the idea
+being that the code is verified through static analysis when installed (but
+this requires a language other than C).
+ <kilobug> braunr: well, the Hurd is buggy nowadays, but things like an
+ ext2fs translator doing a segfault and being restarted is a
+ fault-tolerance that would be almost impossible to have in Linux
+ <kilobug> braunr: sure, you can have fault-tolerance with FUSE, but FUSE is
+ applying micro-kernel paradigm to Linux
+ <braunr> the reason i don't care that much about fault tolerance is that
+ Linux obviously shows a monolithic kernel can run almost flawlessly if
+ well written
+ <braunr> but extensibility is really another matter